Understanding Sustainability, Circularity and Circular Economy


Sustainability: It refers to optimum utilization of resources without compromising the needs of future generations. For example, using of solar energy instead of scarce coal energy.

Circularity: It refers to the degree of effectiveness of a concept, product or service towards their progress from linear to circular trajectory. For example, manufacturing a product with waste as raw material by some kind of technological intervention.

Circular Economy: Integrating the three principles of reduce, recycle and reuse; circular economy is restorative and regenerative by its very design. The products and services herein are designed to reduce waste by reusing it, essentially with some kind of technological intervention.


The practice of circularity is focused on human intervention designed to support the conversion of raw materials into useful products and services. The intentional design of a system is what separates circularity from sustainability. Technological intervention needs to be part of the design, since it is not something that happens automatically.

Circularity and the circular economy hence clearly defines a path, about how to manage this transition. Circular Economy is considered as a significant sustainable initiative for waste minimization. These transitions can be further supportive of achieving the sustainable development goals.

The concept of circularity can be extensively used for closed-loop waste recycling. In the context of product manufacturing, extended producer responsibility toward waste spin-offs can mobilize circular economy structure.

Towards overall economic development of a country, the satisfaction of all the stakeholders holds key in bringing in new products or services by recycling the waste with technological interventions. It thus emphasises on doing away with the concept of waste, and promotes use of renewables by design thinking.


Developing new products through plastics, food-waste, nirmalya, e-waste, thermocol substitute, alternatives to non-biodegradables etc


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