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A brief PPT on Business Advantages of CSR at:
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A brief PPT on Business Advantages of CSR at:
This Mission by Government of India looks for use a multi-pronged strategy to increase the use of the sun as a renewable source of energy by providing subsidies for solar cookers, lamps and water-heaters. It calls for boosting renewable energy’s share of the national generation from 2% to 5%, with specific emphasis on significantly increasing solar energy’s share of the total energy mix. Under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, the plan aims to electrify thousands of villages, create jobs, help combat climate change and also achieve grid parity pricing by 2022. The target is set to be achieved in three phases as shown in the following illustration. (Source: Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE), Govt of India)
In a recent development, the EU wants countries meeting at a conference in June’2012 under the United Nations ‘Rio+20 Mechanism’ to double their share of renewable energy by 2030 under an international obligation. The move would force India to accelerate the deployment of costly renewable energy-based power plants while opening a captive market for developed countries’ ‘green industry’ to sell technologies that are yet to be indigenized in India (Source: Times News Network).
In comparison to Indian industry companies in China, Malaysia, Singapore and South Korea enjoys far lower interest costs and other benefits such as tax holidays, subsidized land and low cost power. Solar PV sector needs Government support to make the industry attractive to enable it to contribute towards clean energy in line with the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission objectives. Lately, India is preparing to defend its policy requiring companies to source local content for the national solar mission project, something that has triggered protests from the US and the EU. US authorities have expressed concern over the solar import restrictions by India and said ‘any restriction that will have the effect on limiting the best technology to India is of concern to America’ (Source: The Economic Times & Express News Service).
Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, Economic Times, Indian Express , Times of India
Greenex Composition and Sectoral Classification
Greenex has been developed by the Bombay stock exchange in collaboration with gTrade. The concept is all about screening companies doing good on the carbon side, as the concerns for climate change is growing among the stakeholders.
Launched on 22-Feb-2012, the new BSE-Greenex index will comprise of 20 stocks based on a minimum carbon footprint, market capitalisation and turnover. The Universe for the Sample of 20 Stocks to be chosen is from the companies forming part of BSE-100. The Index would be reviewed every year in the months of March and September. The September quarter review will be based on the fresh set of carbon emission data while the March quarter review will be based on the existing carbon emission numbers but latest financial data. All the 20 stocks are listed below with their approximate present Market Capitalisation. Also, the sectoral classification for the 20 scripts in BSE Greenex is as illustrated below.
Greenex vs. Sensex
Pharmaceuticals, Public Sector Banks and Engineering sectors make for more than 65 % of the total weight of the Greenex. Further, the Private Sector Banks, Power, Finance and Steel Industry make for more than 20 %. The last 10-12 % weight is from Personal Care, Oil, Automobile, Construction, Cement and Metal Industry. (Source: BSE)
From the time of its launch, the Index has been traded as shown in the following diagram which does not give a fuller picture. The picture is clear once the Greenex is compared to BSE Sensex over different periods of time. The performance of these stocks or the Greenex Index as such on weekly, monthly and half yearly basis is as below. It can be seen that the Sensex is outperforming Greenex Scripts in all the three periods considered i.e. weekly, monthly and half yearly basis. (Source: Moneycontrol Portfolio Management)
As discussed, the Greenex has been arrived at using three criteria, 1) Scale of GHG Emission Number, 2) Average Free Float Market Capitalisation and 3) Average Turnover. The weightage given to these three criteria is 50%, 40% and 10% respectively. The companies are then ranked based on these composite points.
Greenex and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
With the development of nations, carbon emitting has increased resulting into Global Warming. Few years back an argument started on how to lessen the emission of harmful gases that contributes to the greenhouse effect which ultimately causes global warming. Consequently the countries came along and signed an agreement called as the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol has created a mechanism for the countries that have been emitting more carbon and other harmful greenhouse gases vis-à-vis the less emitting ones. Under this modus operandi the developed countries have voluntarily decided that they will bring down the level of carbon they are emitting by 2012 to the levels of early 1990s. So, in the coming year there would be a lot of carbon credit deals.
Under UNFCCC Charter any company from the developed world can tie up with a company in the developing country that is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol. These companies in developing countries must save energy, adopt newer technologies and emit lesser amount of greenhouse gases. Only a portion of the total earnings of carbon credits of the company can be transferred to the company of the developed countries under CDM. There is a fixed quota on buying of credit by companies in Europe.
The Clean Development Mechanism is an agreement under Kyoto Protocol that leads to investment in emission reducing projects. There is a huge scope in India in the area of Clean Technology. The present value of carbon market in India vis-a-vis the projected market is very small. Hence, the scope for Carbon Market in India is enormous in a way that India can almost confine half of the market within couple of years. Greenex’s timely entry at BSE India thus makes a good case for the country to move towards Green Industries.
Times of India
The Technique of Investigation
Research Methods are the ways or techniques employed by the researchers in conducting research operations. On the other hand, Research Methodology is a scientific and systematic way to solve research problems. A researcher has to formulate the approach i.e. in addition to knowledge of methods; the researcher has to apply the logical-approach as well. In addition the methodology may differ from problem to problem. Thus, the scope of research methodology is wider than research methods. In a way, research methodology deals with the research methods and takes into consideration logic behind the methods.
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Defining the Problem
A problem well defined is the problem half solved. The research process begins with the problem discovery and identifying the problem which is the first step towards its solution. The formulation of the problem is often more essential than its solution. The problem statement contains the hidden need for the research project.
Hypothesis is the assumption in the mind of the researcher about the research work selected; before starting the actual research work. It is the proposition as statements about the observable phenomena in this research study that may be judged as true or false. As a declarative statement about the two or more variables, the hypotheses are of the tentative and notional nature. Hypotheses have been seen described as a statement in which variables are assigned to the cases. A case is defined, in this sense, as an entity or thing the hypothesis talks about. The variable is the characteristic, trait or attributes that, in the hypotheses, is imputed to the case. A variable is anything that may assume different numerical values.
Research Design is a master-plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information. It provides the framework to be used as a guide in collecting and analyzing data. Research can be Exploratory, Descriptive or of Casual type.
The major purpose of descriptive research is to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon. The descriptive research has specific objectives resulting in definite conclusions. The design of suitable questionnaire and capturing data from the respondents tests the hypotheses set for the study and results in coming out with unambiguous closing after data analysis. The conclusions drawn is descriptive in nature.
Descriptive studies are well structured while an exploratory study needs to be flexible in nature. Hence, descriptive studies tend to be rigid and its approach cannot be changed every now and then. Descriptive studies can be divided into two broad categories i.e. cross-sectional and longitudinal.
One of the important steps in planning the design is to identify the target population and select the sample if the census is not desired for some reason. Here, the researcher determines who and how many people to survey, what and how many events to observe, or what and how many records to inspect. A sample is a part of the target population, carefully selected to represent that population. Sampling studies are undertaken in order to establish one or more population values and/or testing one or more statistical hypotheses.
Census is the process of obtaining response from / about each of the member of the population which is not always possible due to the various constraints to the researcher like time, cost etc. In such situations the alternate method of data collection is sampling. Sampling is the process of selecting a subset of randomized (or otherwise) number of constituents of the population of the study and collecting data about their characteristics, facts and opinions. Sampling takes lesser time to collect data at lesser cost and also as the data is less; its accuracy often increases as compared to huge data. There are several compelling reasons for sampling; few of the important reasons being;
The Size of the Sample
The next sampling issue concerns the size of the sample. How big should the sample be? The most enveloping myths about what size of sample is needed are; it must be large or it is non-representative and it should bear some proportional relationship to the size of the population from which it is drawn. With non-probability samples; these myths are confirmed using the number of sub-groups, rules of thumbs and budget considerations to settle on a sample size. In probability sampling; how large is a sample should be is a function of the variation in the population parameters under study and the estimating precision needed by the researcher.
As long as the sample so selected is nearly representative of the population or the universe under study; the size of the sample does not matter. The most important part in deciding the sample size thus boils down to the statement; a sample must be truly representative of the universe or the population under the study.
The final sampling decision requires the researcher to choose how the sampling units are to be selected. Sampling methods can be classified into probability and non-probability sampling. In probability sampling, each unit in the population has a probability of being selected as the unit of the sample which varies as per the method of probability sampling is chosen. In non-probability sampling there may be instances that certain units of population will have zero probability of selection because the interviewer considered his / her own judgment, convenience and bias for the selection of the sample units of such sampling. Though the probability sampling gives better accuracy in terms of confidence level of the inferences of the study, there are many practical difficulties in fully executing it.
“All survey questions have to be actionable if you want results.” For this reason, designing scales is of prime importance if one wants actionable results. The different types of scales which can be used are; nominal, ordinal, interval and ration scales.
Data is the basic input to any decision making process in a research study; processing which gives the statistics of importance of the study. The data can be classified in to primary and secondary data. The data which is collected from the field under the control and supervision of the investigator is known as primary data while the data collected from books, journals, magazines, government publications, annual reports of companies etc. is known as secondary data; where the process of data collection has already been done by the respective author, organization or an agency. The reliability of decisions depends on the quality of data and the quality of data can be expressed in terms of representative feature of the reality which can be ensured by appropriate data collection method.
Statistics is the art and science of collecting, analyzing, presenting, and interpreting data. The reason for analyzing data is to understand the variation and its causes in any phenomenon. Since variation is present in all the phenomena, knowledge of it leads to better decisions about a phenomenon that produces the data. It is from this perspective that the learning of statistics enables the decision maker to understand how to draw conclusions about the large population based upon information obtained from the sample.
Conclusion is the inference drawn from the findings while recommendation is the proposal on the part of the researcher. The fact based findings so evolved should result in drawing conclusions and proposing recommendations of the study. Care has to be taken to draw conclusions strictly within the scope of the objectives of the research.
Suggestion is the name given to the psychological process by which one person may guide the thoughts, feelings or behavior of another.… the words “suggest” and “suggestion” were used in senses very close to those which they have in common speech; one idea was said to suggest another when it brought that other idea to mind. Recommendations are basically ideas offered by the researcher for corrective action. These suggestions should be based on one or several alternatives that are supported by the findings. A further research initiative should also be recommended at the end.
On 24th April 1993, the Constitution Act 1992 (73rd Amendment) came into force to provide constitutional status to the Panchayati Raj Institution. The salient features of the act are:
According to the commission the panchayat shall be given powers and authority to function as an institution of self governance. The responsibilities and powers delegated to the panchayats included; preparing plan for economic development and social justice; implementing the schemes for the same in relation to the 29h issues given in the 11th schedule of the constitution and to levy and collect taxes, duties fees and tolls.
The Panchayat Raj System
The Balwant Rai Mehta Committee which was appointed in January 1957 has suggested a three tier system of decentralization, at the village level it suggested Village Panchayat; at the block level the Panchayat Samiti and at the district level the Zilla Parishad. Although, no rigid institutional pattern was laid down for the panchayat raj, the fundamental principles governing the set-up could be summarized in the following principles:
The village panchayat are the elected bodies of the people. All adults from the gram-sabha participate in the elections. The village panchayat send their selected representative to panchayat samities at block level which act as a link between the village panchayat and the zilla parishad. The samiti elects its president and the vice-president. Zilla Parishad is constituted by the presidents of the panchayat samities along with the MPs and MLAs of the district. The collector and the technical departments of the government offer guidance and assistance to the block panchayat samities. These samities are autonomous. Thus, the Panchayat Raj is associated with people’s representatives at all levels. The main advantages of the Panchayat Raj System are ascribed as:
The Ministry of Rural Development extends limited financial assistance to the State for training and awareness building amongst the elected panchayati members. The Ministry also has been supplemented with financial assistance through CAPART to the NGOs for conducting the trainings and awareness building measures on panchayati raj. Ministry of Rural Development also commissions ‘research and evaluation studies’ from NGOs related to the panchayat raj.
The Gram Sabha in the panchayat raj set-up; has a key role for the effectual functioning of the panchayats. In the Gram Sabha meeting, the rural people get an opportunity to be a part of the decision making process related to the issues of rural development. The active functioning of the gramsabha insures a participatory democracy with transparency and accountability. The general features of a gramsabha would be; it meets at least in each quarter, decides need-based development roadmap; suggests measures for effective functioning of the panchayats; questions the panchayat and discusses the annual financial statement of the Gram Panchayats.
In the ‘Provisions of the Panchayats Act, 1996’, the Gram Sabha has been vested with the powers towards; rights of minor forest produce, approval of development plan, land acquisition consultations, managing minor water bodies, selecting beneficiaries, controlling minor leases, manage village market, control money-lending, control social sector institutions, restore unlawfully alienated land and prevent alienation of land.
Let us take a case study of a research titled ‘analysis of role of community organisations in rural development’. Before designing a questionnaire, researcher should go through the various components of research process.
The Problem: The purpose of the research and the rationale behind the study should be clear to the researcher. The problem should be clearly defined. In the case selected here the problem identified would be ‘To study the role of community organisations in the process of rural development’
Objectives: The objectives of the research should align with the problem identified. The questionnaire should contain questions such that after analysing them over a sample; they fulfill the objectives. The main objective of the selected case would be ‘to find whether community organisations play any role in rural development’. Apparent objective would be ‘to find the extent to which community organisations play role in the process of rural development’. Example – Do community organisations play role in the process of rural development? (a) Yes (b)No
Hypothesis: It is the assumption of the researcher prior to taking up the study. Before taking up this study, the researcher might have an opinion that community organisations do not play any role or they play a very high degree of role. The hypothesis would be ‘community organisations play a significant degree of role in the process of rural development’. Example: The extent of role played by community organisations in the process of rural development is? (a) Very High (b) High (c) Moderate (d) Low (e) Very Low
Data Collection & Analysis: A suitable research methodology along with sampling method and proper sample size should then be followed. Different samples in the case considered here can be drawn from community organisations, rural population and the government employees related to the topic under research. The data so collected should be then analysed using suitable statistical techniques and data analysis software (say MS-EXCEL, SAS or SPSS).
Findings and Conclusions: The findings should talk about interpretations in terms of numbers and percentages while the conclusion should be an essay of researchers experience along with the interpretation of the identified problem, objectives and hypothesis.
The important decisions researcher has to take while designing a questionnaire are:
Questionnaire is a set of questions asked to the target respondents. Different types of data which can be used are; nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales. Both open and close-ended questions can be used in the design of the questionnaire to collect data. The questionnaires should have some disguised questions in a sense that few questions can be repeated in the questionnaire with a different tone to it. This results in lessening the respondent bias or error by analyzing these questions collectively. The wording of the questions should be kept simple with local-flavor for better understanding.
Characteristics of Good Questionnaire Design
A survey is the most common method of collecting primary data, a technique through which information is gathered from a sample using a questionnaire. Questions can be open-ended or close-ended. For open ended questions the researcher does not provide any options to answer. Questions are open to any descriptive response, for example: How can we stop corruption in India?
Close ended questions have definite options and they are easy to respond, for example: (Tick the appropriate options below), How can we stop corruption in India? (a) Stringent Law (b) Empower Lokpal, CBI & Vigilance (c) By not giving bribes
If the respondent of a questionnaire is knowledgeable about the respective idea behind the question or an authority over the subject matter or simply put a part of the relevant sample chosen, the person is our target respondent. Further, a target question is the relevant question asked to the chosen sample which should be based on the problem defined, the chosen hypothesis and the objectives of the research.
Different method of giving options to a close-ended question is called as scale. Scale can be nominal, ordinal, ratio or interval type. Further, the researcher should follow a logical and meaningful sequence of questions, which is called as structure of the questionnaire (Please refer the PPT below for details about the types of scales and structure of questionnaire).
The pilot test collects concise data about the research to serve as a guide to larger study, example being focus groups. The pilot test thus helps to identify the problem, if any, in the questionnaire. Once, corrective measures are taken, the researcher can go ahead with final version of questionnaire. This questionnaire is now ready to be administered to the full sample chosen. This data so collected then is analysed to arrive at fact based findings. A logical conclusion is then derived with a commentary on analysis of the problem defined, hypothesis and objectives of the research.
Answers to Questionnaire Decisions
1. What should be asked? Target questions to target audience.
2. How should each question be phrased? Simple in design and easy to respond.
3. What should be the sequence of question? Simple questions to generate interest in the beginning; followed by target questions; open-ended and optional questions at the end.
4. Is there a possibility of further improving the questionnaire? Take a pilot test (like test marketing); try analysing the data; improve until the pilot-analysis solves the problem-defined.
PowerPoint Presentation on Questionnaire Design
Replacement of items that fail suddenly
There are certain items which do not deteriorate but fail completely after certain amount of use. These kinds of failures are analysed by the method called as group replacement theory. Here, large numbers of items are failing at their average life expectancy. This kind of items may not have maintenance costs as such but they fail suddenly without any prior warning. Also, in case of sudden breakdowns immediate replacement may not be available. Few examples are fluorescent tubes, light bulbs, electronic chips, fuse etc.
Let’s consider the example of street lights. We often see street-lights being repaired by the corporation staff using extendable ladders. If a particular light is beyond repairs, then it is replaced. This kind of policy of replacement is called as ‘replacement of items as-and-when they fail’ or ‘Individual Replacement’. On the other hand, if all the street lights in a particular cluster are replaced as and when they fail and also simultaneously in groups, then the policy is called as ‘Group Replacement’. It should be noted that, group replacement does involve periodic simultaneous replacements along with individual replacements in between.
It is found that replacing these random failing items simultaneously at specific intervals is economical as compared to replacing them only when an item fails. A long period between group replacements results in increase in cost of individual replacements, while frequent group replacements are definitely costly. There lies the need to balance this and find an optimum replacement time for optimum cost of replacement.
Illustration of Group Replacement
A factory has 1000 bulbs installed. Cost of individual replacement is Rs. 3/- while that of group replacement Re. 1/-per bulb respectively. It is decided to replace all the bulbs simultaneously at fixed interval & also to replace the individual bulbs that fail in between. Determine optimal replacement policy. Failure probabilities are as given below:
The probabilities given in the problem are cumulative i.e. till week 1, till week 2 etc. Individual probabilities would be 0.10 in 1st week, 0.15 (0.25-0.10) in 2nd week, and so on. (as shown in the below table)
Policy-I: Individual Replacement
Step 1) Cost of Individual Replacements
Individual Failures/week = Total Quantity / Mean Life = 1000 / 3.45 = 289.9
Individual Replacement Cost = (Individual Failures per week) x (Individual replacement cost)
= 289.9 x 3 = Rs. 869.6
Policy-II: Group Replacement
Step 2) Individual failures per week
In the first week: 10 % (0.10) of the bulbs will fail out of 1000 bulbs i.e. 100
In the second week: 15 % of the bulbs will fail out of 1000 bulbs i.e. 150. Also, 10% of 100 replaced in the first week i.e. 10. TOTAL bulbs failed until second week = 160 (150+10)
Rest of the calculation is as shown in the below table:
Step 3) Calculating the total cost & time of replacement:
Thus, replacing all the bulbs simultaneously at fixed interval & also to replace the individual bulbs that fail in between will be economical or optimal after 4 weeks (optimal interval between group replacements).
Hence, the bulbs shall be replaced every four weeks individually as well as in groups which combine would cost Rs. 863.6 per week (lesser than individual cost of Rs. 869.6 per week)
Click the following link to Download the Excel Solver
The following mortality rates have been observed for a special type of light bulbs. There are 1000 such bulbs in the concerned unit of the industry.
It costs Rs 10 to replace an individual bulb that has burnt out. If the bulbs were replaced simultaneously, it would cost Rs. 2.50 per bulb. It is proposed to replace all the bulbs at fixed interval, whether are not they have burnt out, and to continue replacing the burnt out bulbs as they fail. At what intervals of time should the manager replace all the bulbs? Decide the optimum replacement policy.
Step 1) Download the Excel Solver
Step 2) Over-write the new problem values in the orange cells.
Step 3) Compare:
Hence, the bulbs need to be replaced completely after every two months along with individual replacements as and when they fail.
Operations Research Techniques: Operations Research Theories
Replacement – Basic Example: Replacement Theory Algorithm
Present Worth Factor (pwf) : Replacement with Time-Value of Money
BPR in US, Europe and India: Business Process Re-engineering
Product Inspection to Business Excellence: History of Quality Control
Inventory – Introduction: Inventory Control
Definition, Objectives & Role of Self Help Groups
The Self Help Groups (SHGs) Guiding Principle stresses on organizing the rural poor into small groups through a process of social mobilization, training and providing bank credit and government subsidy. The SHGs are to be drawn from the BPL list approved by the Gram Sabha wherein about ten persons are selected, one each from a family and focus on the skill development training based on the local requirement. The SHG movement has gathered pace in countryside and is directly or indirectly contributing towards the economic development of rural areas. This article throws light on forming self help groups in rural areas as well as its effect on the rural economy. The objective of Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) is to bring the assisted poor families; that is; the beneficiaries or Swarozgaris; above the poverty line by ensuring appreciable increase in income over a period of time. This objective is to be achieved by organizing the rural poor into SHGs through a process of social mobilization, their training and capacity building along with the provision of income-generating assets through a mix of bank credit and government subsidy. The main objective of SHG concept is to improve the economic development of women and create facilitating environment for their social transformation in the lift of gender discrimination in work and the household.
Code of Conduct & SHG Mechanism: SHG is a registered or unregistered group of micro entrepreneurs having homogeneous social and economic background, voluntarily coming together to save small amount regularly, to contribute a common fund and to meet their emergency needs on mutual help basis.
Ten persons are selected, one each from a BPL family to form a group which is expected to implement following code of conduct like Assigning name to the SHG, Regular meetings in a Democratic way, Open exchange of thoughts in these meetings, Participation in the Decision Making process, Bank Account in the name of the SHG and Selecting a President and Secretary from the SHG.
The groups’ total fund is to be deposited in the bank account so created. SHGs that are in existence for about six months and have demonstrated the potential of a viable group enters the 3rd stage, wherein it receives a ‘Revolving Fund’ from DRDA and Bank as a cash-credit facility. This money may be utilized for internal lending among the members. If group is found to be regular in its internal lending and successfully utilizes this revolving fund; proposal for bank loan may be forwarded for sanctioning.
SHGs and Rural Development
In order to change the face of socio-economic scenario, micro enterprises and SHGs are playing significant role in the self-employment by raising the level of income and standard of living rural people. In this framework, one of the most vital aspects of rural self employment is the formation of SHGs which is a valuable investment in human capital through training and capacity building measures. From dairy to mechanised farming, weaving, poultry, food processing units, mushroom cultivation; Rural India has been busy setting up micro-enterprises by forming SHGs. The group members use collective wisdom and peer pressure to ensure appropriate use of fund and its timely repayment. These are informal groups in nature where members come together towards collective action for common cause. The common need is meeting their emergent economic needs without depending on external help. SHG movement is supposed to build economic self reliance of rural poor, overcome misuse and create confidence predominantly among women who are mostly unseen in the social structure.
SHGs: Effects & Outcome
In India, self employment has been recognized as an essential force of development in rural areas. It has emerged as a strategy designed to improve the socio-economic life and mainly focuses on extending the benefits of development to the poorest in the rural areas improving their standard of living and self-realization. SHGs in India are integrating the low income segments with rest of the rural community by ensuring them a better participation in a more equitable share in the benefit of developments. These Groups are not only speeding up economic growth, but also providing jobs and improving the quality of rural life towards self-reliance. Self-employment needs a very wide ranging and comprehensive set of activities, relevant to all aspects of rural economy and covering rural people including skilled, unskilled and landless labours and artisans of Rural India. Even though the Rural Indians put their entrepreneurial skills in all the rural development activities their economic status has not improved to the expected level. Although they have much potential; they are ignorant of converting their skills into reality.
Village Development through Micro-Financing the SHGs
Though there is variety of programmes to alleviate poverty and empower rural people, SHGs have done well in the country. The emergence of small enterprises and its activities have made a considerable contribution in the socio-economic development of rural poor in the society. In the 11th Five Year Plan; in view of inclusive growth; we cannot think of rural self employment on sustained basis without consideration of Micro-Finance and SHGs. The Plan provides a new vision of inclusive and faster growth at the rate of 9%. No doubt; the SHGs will help in achieving this new vision of growth with the support of Micro-Finance. The impact on the lives of rural people is not just an economic one; gaining more self-confidence is often a more lasting achievement that forms the basis for social and economic improvements. But are SHGs the answer to all problems in India? Few issues need to be considered when attempting to answer this question:
It is very important and vital to address these issues and for this an integrated approach of Government, Banks and NGOs is crucial. The institutional efficiency needs to be increased. Speeding up the delivery process is also very important. Easy access to credit, flexibility in the repayment schedule, conceptualization of new schemes for the poor should be considered. Role of NGOs, too, is equally important as they serve as the most important element to create awareness among the rural poor. They should give wide publicity to rural banking and its linkage programmes at local level and must enable the Rural Indians to participate in the decision making process at the bottom level. These measures can significantly make the Self Help Groups effective and efficient in order to boost the Rural Economy of India.
Brief PowerPoint Presentation (PPT)
Social Audit: Social Auditing in India – A Management Framework
The Young Water Professional Program (Water 2011) under CSIR, New Delhi was concluded with a bang in front of a full house Workshop of young audience at NEERI (National Environmental Engineering Research Institute). The objective of the Workshop has been fostering relationship amongst Young Water Professionals with established professionals in the water sector. Further, to foresee the possible career opportunities along with future challenges in the Water Sector (Source – http://www.iwanews.org/).
Speaking on the juncture Dr. S. R. Wate, Director, NEERI, called the attention towards bigger picture in the Water Sector Opportunities. He inspired the young audience to pursue the career in Water Sector with passion and zeal with earnest desire to do so.
The eminent professionals in the Water Sector who delivered during the program included; R Venkatraghavan (Discover Category Leader, Water, Unilever R & D, Bangalore), Sanjay Bajpai (Department of Science and Technology, Government of India), DG Sonwane (TCE), Sanjay Singh (Wash Consultant, UNICEF, MP), Adrian Alcayde (Manila Water Company, Philippines), Dr Ramesh Daryapurkar (Lars Enviro), Teny Mittal (CH2M Hill, US), Dinesh Rathi (DRA Consultants) and Rahul Lohakare of Veolia Water India.
The concepts in the area of Water Sector touched upon by these professionals included; Metal Removal, Disinfection, Filtration, Carbon Nano-Tubes, Polymers / Membranes, Bio-Materials, Leak Detections, Leak Repairs, Meter Consumption Analysis, Waste-Water (Treatment, Energy, Recycle and Reuse), Dissolved Air Floatation, Sewage Treatment, Anaerobic Treatment of Industrial Waste, Oil /Grease Removal, Sludge Management, Incineration, Biogas to Power and CNG, Microbial Fuel-Cell Techniques and a plethora of concepts related to Water Management.
Adrian Puigarnau from International Water Association flew all the way from Hague, Netherlands and has instilled lot of energy in the program by way of his fervent and lively presence. The formal vote of thanks was proposed by Dr Pawan Labhasetwar who, along with his young team, has been instrumental towards the successful conduct of the program.
What is Management?
Ever since people began forming groups to accomplish aims they could not achieve as individuals, managing has been essential to ensure the coordination of individual efforts. As society has come to rely increasingly on group effort, and as many organized groups have become large, the task of managers has been increasing in its magnitude. Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals in groups efficiently achieve selected aims (Harold Koontz and Heinz Weihrich, Essentials of Management, 6/e, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2005, p.4).
Management is an art of getting work done out of others, working in a group. It is what the management does. It is the skill of inducing people to give their best contribution towards the most effective and efficient execution of group goals; by creating a fine internal environment in the group enterprise; by performing managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling with emphasis on coordination throughout the management process.
Management is a critical element in the economic growth of a country. By bringing together the four factors of production; men, money, material and machines; management enables a country to experience a substantial level of economic development. A country with enough capital, manpower and other natural resources can still be poor if it does not have competent managers to combine and coordinate these resources (Tripathy & Reddy, Principles of Management, 2/e, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2004, p. 1).
Without management, a country’s resources of production remain resources and never become production (Peter Drucker, The Practice of Management, Allied Publishers, New Delhi, 1970, p. 1). The central core of our national as well as personal activities, and the way we manage ourselves and our institutions reflects with alarming clarity what we and our society will become.
Chanakya in India defined Management as: “Gaining the non-possessed, protecting the gained and making the protected grow through deployment of persons” (Ashok Garde, Chanakya on Management, ‘Rajyatantram,’ Jaico Publishing House, Mumbai, 2006, p.87). Further, the manager should manage himself well on the emotional front – These concepts have been seeping in gradually in the recent past in the management studies. These underlying principles can be seen in the recent developments such as; corporate governance, business ethics, sustainable development, value-based systems, etc.
The main focus of the five-year plans in India is to implement the various development policies/programs on sustainable basis. This principle was quiet evident when Chanakya quoted ‘protecting the gained and making the protected grow.’On the other hand; Professor Haimann has rightly observed that it is helpful to think of the managerial functions (planning, organizing, directing and controlling) as a circular, continuous movement. They blend into each other like the flowing water of river and at times there is no clear line of demarcation when one ends and the other begins. In fact, they have no separate entities (Theo Haimann, Professional Management – Theory and Practice, Eurasia Publishing House, New Delhi, 1962, p.24). This model by Professor Haimann can be further modified to fit the functions of management into three concrete components i.e. planning, implementation and control through monitoring. For the purpose of this research study the process of management is divided into the same three components as shown in the below figure.
There is no formal data sharing mechanisms between different agencies working at Gram Panchayat, Tehsil or District levels. In fact there are multiple lines of control and reporting mechanisms. In the case of revenue officials, the line of reporting is from village officer (Talati) to the Circle Officer, Tehsildar and District Collector. The channels of reporting in the case of different functionaries at Gram Panchayat, Block Development Office and District Panchayat Office are through the respective line of control of the respective departments. The reports being received by different departments are generally not being integrated at any stage.
The Process of Managing the Rural Development Programs & Role of NGOs
As formulated in the secondary data itself; the process of Management has been divided into three basic components i.e.
Along with these three components the other general management principles like administration, motivation; etc. has also been given a look in here. A query about the contribution in the rural development programs asked to the NGOs has been responded as shown in the following table.
The above break-up shows that there are some other principles of management in which the NGOs believe apart from the three basic components identified by the researcher. Still, 43.8% of the respondents responded with a contribution in the three basic components of management as discussed earlier. A query about the role of various stakeholders in the three basic phases is as shown below.
The respondent does seem to give ‘Implementation’ a heavy weight in the process of management of the rural development programs as compared to the other two phases. The above reality has been further endorsed by the fact that about 79% of the Government Officials support the role of NGOs in the Implementation of programs.
Further when it was enquired with the Government Officials about the Role NGOs should be assigned in the process of better-managing these programs; 22% replied with NGOs role in planning, 18% in implementation, 7% in control and about 45% in aiding people’s participation. Again, the officials were asked whether the role of NGOs should be increased in the planning phase itself; 73% of the officials answered in an affirmative. When the government officials were asked whether the Government should directly fund at Village Level & NGOs not at all required; 68% said a ‘No’. The same Government Officials when asked about monitoring these programs; 18% replied through the ‘Social Audit’ which is an important management tool these days. Further, from the experience of the Government Officials, it was observed that they believe about NGOs play a ‘moderate’ role in Social Audits, with a mean of 50% and mode of 60% to be precise.
While the villagers were asked about the Gram-Sabha’s status in their villages; 36 % of the respondents replied for a frequency of one gram-sabha a year while 26 % replied with two per year. Further, about 33 % of the villager affirmed that the ‘Social Audits’ does take place in front of the Gram-Sabha. Moreover, almost 42% of the villagers responded that maximum 50 villagers being present during these Social Audits and 20% responded with between 50 to 100 villagers being present.
When the villagers were asked a series of questions regarding general management issues with the NGOs; this is what their opinion was, 81% believed that the NGOs do play a rule in Management of Rural Development Programs, 78% feel that they need NGOs in order to get the support from the government system, 73% of villagers find NGOs to be their source of motivation to participate in the development programs. Motivation being one of the most important principles of management, 69% of the villagers felt that NGOs bring transparency in implementation of the rural development programs, 52% of villagers believe NGOs to be honest, 64% have faith in them and 88.3% of the villagers cooperate with the NGOs, 57% of the villagers recognize the positive role NGOs play in ‘social audits’, 34% believe that the efforts of NGOs result in to bringing the ‘development schemes’ to their villages. The above statistics does throw a light on the role of NGOs in various generally accepted management functions like; advocacy, motivation, organization, cooperation, coordination, monitoring and lobbying.